Guide Chain Reaction (Extinction Event Book 2)

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When certain types of plants and animals are killed off from these effects, other species that depend on them also die off or, when possible, move to another area.

Estuaries and wetlands are not the only types of ecosystems threatened with habitat loss. They have now been reduced to isolated patches among urban and rural developments. Habitat fragmentation occurs when previously connected habitat is split up by human developments such as urban areas, agricultural fields, logging and roads.

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This leaves smaller, isolated areas to be available for wildlife - in effect, habitat "islands. Fragmentation interrupts the movements, foraging and hunting behaviours of many animals. People are coming to realize that isolated parks surrounded by human development are not sufficient to preserve wildlife.

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Rather, interconnected natural areas and wildlife corridors are needed. After all, most modifications of natural areas by people degrades wildlife habitat to some extent. However, if urban growth is carefully planned and if people take on the challenge to reduce their impact on natural areas, habitat loss can be minimized. People rely on natural habitats, even those of us who live in the city. Bees and other insects pollinate many of the crops we eat.

The Impact That Wiped Out the Dinosaurs

Birds and bats eat insect pests that threaten the crops. Forests supply wood for our houses.

Many people eat wild plants, fish and game. Our drinking water is purified by forests and wetlands. Bacteria break down our wastes.

Are you feeling sad, upset, depressed, angry or anxious about the global warming emergency?

And many types of plants, bacteria and fungi help to cure disease and maintain health; the millions of species not yet discovered may prove to be invaluable for health and technology products. These functions are sometimes referred to as "ecosystem services," and although it is difficult to value them in monetary terms, some people are attempting to do just that, so that these functions are not taken for granted see "ecosystem valuation" in More Information.

Natural systems are extremely complex and knowledge about how they function is quite limited. However, the importance of a wide variety of species, some of which perform apparently "redundant" functions, is beginning to emerge. Preserving natural habitat therefore preserves biodiversity, and acts like a "savings fund" for the earth and for our future needs. An important first step in preserving habitats is to identify them.

Technologies such as satellite imagery, global positioning systems GPS , geographical information systems GIS and remote sensing aid this task, and allow people to create many different types of maps. Maps can show where species and habitats are located, so that local residents, governments and developers can take them into account, and hopefully minimize impacts upon them.

Sometimes community groups undertake mapping projects in order to identify sites that are important to them, for the cultural, social or natural values they represent. See "online mapping tools" in More Information for some examples. There are many things individuals can do to prevent unnecessary damage to habitats: Learn more about the natural habitats in your area, and help to educate others about their importance.

Sources of local information include community stewardship groups, nature centres and online atlases and mapping tools see More Information. Help reduce pollution that can damage wildlife and habitat. Many of these organisations are short of staff with a wide range of skills, including operations, management, communications and admin. If you could fill one of these roles that would have a lot of impact. You can find lists of organisations in each of the problem profiles above. Read more about working at effective non-profits and working at foundations.

There are many useful avenues for research within all of the priority areas listed. Some especially useful fields include:. Second tier: biology inc. If you already have expertise in an academic field, there is likely a way to contribute. See our problem profiles for lists of specific research questions. To go down this path, you can either work in academia, or there are many non-profit organisations and think tanks that hire researchers.

As we mentioned, building a community of scientists who care about these risks seems like a promising course of action. Many government roles also seem extremely influential relative to how hard they are to enter.

The case for reducing extinction risks - 80, Hours

There is useful action we can take today to reduce many of these risks, such as improving disease surveillance or improving decision-making. There are few people who have a good understanding of both science and policy, and we need more people like this to develop good proposals. Within these paths, you can try to specialise in an especially relevant area of policy, such as technology policy, international relations or defence.

There are also specialist routes into science policy, such as working as a grantmaker within a government research funding agency like DARPA. To enter these options, people often start as a researcher. We hope to produce more detailed guides on all these options. These three paths are also not meant to be exhaustive. There are many other ways to help. You can generate more ideas by making your own list of priority areas, then trying to spot the biggest bottlenecks to progress within each.

This can also ruin the reputation of others who promote these risks, hampering the whole movement. We actually think that technology has more potential benefits than most people realise, which makes us even more keen to safeguard civilisation. Second, the solutions to many of these risks are complicated. For instance, stricter regulation of bioengineering sounds like an obvious idea, but it could make people less willing to report accidents, increasing certain types of risk.

If you know someone in this category, you can help by carefully introducing them to the ideas and arguments. Read more about some of the problems with broad advocacy.

Another area where we struggle to see how to make progress is by setting up for-profit businesses and social enterprises. However, there are sometimes exceptions, especially in the less neglected areas. For instance, for-profit companies could help to develop better technology for disease monitoring, since this also creates short-term benefits and the government might be willing to pay for it.

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Or consider Tesla as a way to fight climate change. Some steps that can put you in a better position by building career capital include:. Work in any well-run organisation and learn a skill that will be useful in one of these paths. For instance, you could work in a great operations team in the private sector, with the aim of later transferring into relevant non-profits or the government. Meet people who work on these issues.

There are conferences about the specific risks, as well as many people in the effective altruism community who can help. Anyone can contribute to reducing these risks by donating to relevant organisations. This became much easier in early , because you can now donate to the Effective Altruism Long-Term fund. This fund makes grants to organisations that aim to help the long-term future, with a focus on reducing catastrophic risks. It pools the money of individual donors, and then allocates it to the organisation most in need of funding at the time.

Note that 80, Hours has received funding from the manager of this fund in the past. You could also consider aiming to take a higher-paid job so you can donate more — earning to give. Your donations could be enough to fund the salaries of several workers in the non-profit sector, at the most effective organisations. This will let you learn more about the issues and promote a culture of safety. Read more about how best to earn to give here.

Our generation can either help cause the end of everything, or be the generation that navigates humanity through its most dangerous period, and become one of the most important generations in history. We could be the generation that makes it possible to reach an amazing, flourishing world, or that puts everything at risk.

Max Einstein: Chain Reaction Book Promotion (5000 Dominoes)

We can help you analyse your plan, make connections, and find jobs in these areas. Speak to us. Why to focus on future generations? You can hear related ideas discussed in our podcasts with Dr. Toby Ord and Dr.